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《夜色温柔》中迪克·戴弗的道德堕落——羞耻模型视角下的新思考

论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:硕士毕业论文 dissertation登出时间:2021-07-24编辑:vicky点击率:606

论文字数:31255论文编号:org202107211019204850语种:英语 English地区:中国价格:$ 44

关键词:英语文学论文道德堕落羞耻模型人格失调

摘要:本文是一篇英语文学论文,笔者认为《温柔是夜》和新的社会心理模式阐释了主人公在新语境中的行为选择,不仅给经典文学提供了另一种可能的解读,而且对现实中的道德实践也具有指导意义。

本研究采用因子分析法和投影分析法相结合的研究方法。根据主人公的心理痕迹和作者的自传,潜水员道德滑坡的原因是:羞愧感触发了纠正道德错误的适当动机,但是,潜水员错误的归因会使其效果减弱甚至适得其反,其外在归因降低了自我提高的动机,而全球归因则增加了自我防御的动机。他把这场灾难归咎于环境,并为自己的选择和行为推卸责任


Chapter Ⅰ Theoretic Exploration of Shame Model


1.1 Appraisals Based on Image Concerns

Although people like to boast themselves with good moral cultivation, we all makemistakes. Sociologists hold that moral failure is a huge damage to our social imagebecause it affectsothers’evaluations of us. Psychologists believe concernfor one’sself-image should be taken into consideration because self-evaluation is central to morality.Socially or psychologically, these hypotheses give shame the core role in linkingappraisals and our concerns for image. However, social image and self-image are notopposite, instead, they could be complementary or substitutable. If a person has a betterself-image, it will increase his need for a higher social image. In this case, theycomplement each other; when a person has a low self-image, he may look to a bettersocial image and now the two are substitute for each other. In addition, one’s socialimage is the overall impression of the public. Man is a social being and thus self-imagehas social nature. From this perspective, to improve the self-image is to improve thesocial image and social relations.

Shame was thought to be highly self-centered, but Lewis (1971) found that the“other” is a prominent and powerful force in the experience of shame. (p.41) Shebelieved that for shame to occur there must be an emotional relationship between theperson and the “other” such that the person cares what the other thinks or feels aboutthe self. (p.42) Iyer and other people (2007) did anexperiment onAmerican and Britishparticipants who were told their nations are corrupt and arrogant in the eyes of Iraqis4.It’s actually an appraisal based on other’s condemnnation. The participants allexperienced the feeling of shame related with their damaged social images. It’s noticedthat self-image could also be affected at the same time, and the preferential concern forself-image or social image is unclear. 

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1.2 Opposite Motivations Induced by Feelings of Shame

Having differentiated concerns for social image and self-image, it’s time to explainvarious feelings related with shame and the following motivations induced by thecomplicated emotion.

Moral Failure suggests the damage to one’s self-image, when one assumes that it iscaused by a global defect which is thought as unalterable, it’s natural for him to actdefensively. However, damage to social image may better explain self-defensivemotivation. When thefeeling of shame debilitates to feeling of rejection, it makes sensethat self-defensive motivation is induced. Emotional experience of social devaluationis easy to link with such feeling. Because the damage to one’s social image is done, onecan do nothing but adopt measures to avoid the further damage.

Shame Model helps to explain how the feelings of shame trigger distinctmotivations in the experienceof moral failures. Here we consider two appraisals (other-condemnation and self-defect) and three major shame feelings (rejection, guilt,inferiority). When one focuses on his damaged social image, he is involved into the other-condemnation appraisal and the core feeling论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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